Martyrdom of Imam Hussain and Islamic universality
Tanzeel Beg Qadri
There are many events in the world that leave their mark. Their effects are either temporary or individual or limited to a specific society. Which fade with the passage of time. Dozens of sacrifices and martyrdoms took place in the history of Islam in many battles of truth and falsehood, but the uniqueness and unity of the martyrdom of Imam Hussain could not be shared by anyone else. Although this great martyrdom appeared on the 4th of Muharram, but it is second to none in the history of the world. There are several reasons for this globalization, the main ones being:
1- The martyrdom of Hussain has a special place in the creation of God before the Muslims, from their own and later periods. That is why when Allah Almighty sent a ram from heaven to save Hazrat Ishmael (as) from slaughter, at the same time he informed him of a great slaughter in the future of his descendants. He said:
فَفَدَیْنٰہُ بِذِبْحٍ عَظِیْمٍ
“So We saved Ishmael (pbuh) from a great sacrifice in redemption.” (Surat as-Saaffat: 2)
In the company of various scholars, Allama Iqbal, the sage of the ummah, has said in his book "Ramuz-e-Bekhodi":
God bless you in the name of God
The meaning of the great slaughter of the coming son
“It is the glory of Allah that the father is the father of Bismillah.
While the son has been declared the meaning of the great slaughter.
Not only the great Qur'an but also the historical evidence shows that the People of the Book were aware of the martyrdom of Hussain centuries before the birth of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and also of being the intercessors of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) on the Day of Resurrection. Ibn Asakr narrates that Imam Bani Saleem narrated from his Isaac that he went to Rome for a battle and then went to a Christian church where he saw this poem written:
How did you kill Umm Um Hussain?
شَفَـاعَـۃَ جَـدِّهِ يَوْمَ الْقِـيَـامَۃِ
"How can the ummah that killed Hussein hope for his grandfather's intercession on the Day of Judgment?"
Isaac asked the Romans: How long have you been looking at this letter in this church? He replied: Six hundred years before the advent of your Prophet. (History of Damascus 14/243)
These creational facts about the martyrdom of Hussain were also revealed by the Holy Prophet (sws) to his companions and Ahlul Bayt (RA) in many ways. Therefore, it is narrated in a saheeh hadeeth that Hazrat Umm Salma (may Allah be pleased with her) narrates that one day while the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) was staying in her house, tears were flowing from her holy eyes. I asked: O Messenger of Allah, what is the matter today that tears are flowing from the holy eyes? He said: I have just been informed by Jibreel that:
مِنَّ ُّمَّتَكَ سَتَقْتُلُ هَذَا بِارْضٍ يُقَالُ لَهَا كَرْبَلَاءُ
“Your ummah will martyr your son Hussain on this land which is called Karbala.” (Al-Mujam al-Kabeer: 2819)
On the contrary, in some hadiths, the Holy Prophet (sws) has also mentioned Yazid (beginning). This is the reason why the great martyrdom of Imam Hussain (as) had already gained public fame before it took place and then also through inspiration and revelation.
2- Other testimonies are individual or one or two members of the family. But the sacrifice of all members of the same family is the only way to distinguish the Chamanistan of the Prophet. It is mentioned in the books of history and hadith with authentic narration that the martyrdom of more than 5 people related to the family of Prophethood took place in the field of Karbala.
3- Allah Almighty tests His pious servants in different ways, sometimes with wealth, sometimes with life, sometimes with children, sometimes with expulsion from the country, etc. In the martyrdom of Hazrat Imam Hussain (AS), Allah Almighty has collected all the sufferings and afflictions so that the believers will have an argument till the Day of Resurrection that faith does not require a single sacrifice, a single misfortune, a single trial but Cruelty and calamity are required, and the truth is that at such a time the honesty of the believer is known. That is why at the time of martyrdom Imam Hussain asked: What land is this? The people standing around him replied that it was Karbala. The High Imam repeated the words of the Prophets and said:
صَدَقَ النَّبِيُّ ﷺ: ِّنَّهَا أَرْضُ كَرْبٍ وَبَلَاءٍ
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said that it is a land of misery and calamity (Al-Mujam al-Kabeer: 2812).
4- Since the martyrdom of Hussein is one of the most important and significant events in the creation of God, this martyrdom is unique in terms of its far-reaching effects and consequences, because the political, ideological, economic and social effects that followed in the Islamic state. They can still be seen and felt today, but there is no layer of global revolutions in the world of color and smell that is not driven by this martyrdom.
From the above specifics, it is clear that the martyrdom of Hussein has always been a high ideal for every revolutionary force. The main reason for this is that when the monarchy took root in the land of Islam and the believers began to fall prey to dictatorships, tyranny and injustice, the Islamic system of monarchy, which was based on high democracy and consultation. Not only did it come to an end, but the lustful kings, due to their incompetence and lust queens, created such conditions that the beliefs of Islam and its conception of sanctity became taboo, which inevitably resulted in economic, Social, moral and economic evils prevailed which led to the disintegration of the collective system of Islam at the national and international levels. Therefore, the darkness from which the Holy Prophet (sws) and the Rightly Guided Caliphs, following him, had brought the Muslim Ummah out, was again pushed into the same gloomy darkness of oppression and ignorance. A seemingly unbiased study of the history of Islam makes it as clear as day that when the Islamic State moved from the Khilafah to the monarchy, under its shadow came the most deadly and Islamophobic diseases and The issues that arise due to this can be divided into the following main headings:
i- Religious and doctrinal
ii- Intellectual and political
iii- Collective and social
iv- Jurisprudential and theological
v. Economic and financial
In Islamic politics, a principle has been in effect since the beginning of Islam: "Separate from politics, only Genghis Khan is left" (Iqbal) and the average student of world religions is also aware of the fact that national and international level But the real motivation for any kind of change has been religion, whether it is from acceptance of religion or rejection of religion. And this religious element has been especially effective in Islamic beliefs and practices, and this has always been the hallmark of every Islamic society. In view of these basic facts, when we examine the different and contradictory conceptions of the evolution of the state at the Islamic level, the fact becomes clear that when Amir Muawiyah established the monarchy, the concept of the state of Islam and all its accessories The Islamic political system and way of life, in contrast to other non-Muslim societies and communities, was destroyed. As a result, the royal court was established instead of the parliament, due to which the Muslim went astray at every level. A system of government based on exploitation and aggression was formed; Under the council, the Crown nomination took the place of the electoral system. Hazrat Hassan Basri lamented the introduction of the monarchy system and said, "Because of this monarchy system, these kings started taking allegiance for their sons in their time. If it were not for this, the doomsday would have been shura among the Muslims." ۔ (History of the Caliphs: 339) This is the reason that when Amir Mu'awiyah appointed Yazid as the Crown Prince and hatred and anger began to spread against him in the Islamic world, he talked about the sedition and corruption of the people of Kufa. When he was prevented from going to Kufa, the High Imam, keeping in view the whole system of government of Islam, said:
I do not think that there is an excuse for the excuse of Allah in abandoning jihad, and I do not know the great tribulation from which I have commanded you to do this.
"I do not think that Allah has any excuse for me not to wage jihad against you and I do not know that there is any greater sedition on this Ummah than your rule." (Al-Bida'at: 11/500)
The Imam of the Prophets (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) also pointed out the same fact:
This command has not been established in installments until a man from the nation of Umayyad is killed.
“This system of government based on justice and fairness will continue until a man from Benawamiyah will create cracks in it.” (Musnad Abi Yali: 870)
Now let the people of insight decide for themselves who is the real source of the hadith.
Let us see a glimpse of the change in the collective thought, religious beliefs and practices, and the political and economic level due to the revolts and disruptions created by the monarchy in the crown prince of Amir Muawiyah, Yazid. Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi states that:
"Yazid was the first person to drink alcohol in public." Open slaves were fond of singing and hunting; He used to adopt slaves and dogs, and openly did everything that was a way of life for the people of luxury. Raised chickens and then fought them He enjoyed all the sports equipment and kept monkeys. He had a monkey named Abu Qays. On the day when Yazid would get drunk in the morning, he would tie the monkey to his horse, which he would wear on an instrument made of silk ropes. People would walk in front of him and the royal cavalry would lead in front of him. This monkey was his special Nadeem, he used to give him wine, he used to wear yellow and red robes and gold hats. And he would run the horses in such a way that the monkey was on top of them. Once he put the monkey on a wild donkey and left it to compete with the horses in the racecourse. The donkey overtook the horses, but suddenly fell and died, along with the monkey Abu Qays. Yazid was very saddened by the monkey's death, so he shrouded him and then buried him and ordered the Syrians to mourn the monkey. On the contrary, Blazeri states that Yazid's death occurred in such a way that he put a drunken monkey on a wild donkey with him and hit him from behind, causing Yazid to fall and break his neck. Gone or cut off some of his stomach and fell down, which caused him to die. And according to Haitham: Yazid did whatever he intended to do. ”(Surat al-Zaman: 8/297-299)
Yazid's immoral character was well known to all people of sound nature and opinion, which is why they opposed his coronation and frightened Amir Muawiyah. Ibn Sirin states that:
Amr ibn Hazm came to Mu'awiyah and said to him: Regarding the Ummah of Muhammad, I remind you of the person whom you have made your successor over this Ummah. Mu'awiyah said: I have no defect in my heart, so I am also convinced of your opinion, but the point is that there is no one left except my son and the sons of others and my son is more entitled. ”(History of the Caliphs: 339ــ 340)
It is a matter of concern that Amir Mu'awiyah said this while he knew that Imam Hussain and Ibn Zubayr were in good health among the ummah. The result of this stubbornness of Amir Muawiyah was that Yazid became the king and thus the administration of the country was completely handed over to the hands of thugs, lustful, dishonest and exploitative people. The Islamic government established by the Holy Prophet and the Rightly Guided Caliphs was based on divine sovereignty and shura (democracy) instead of human sovereignty. Its main purpose was to liberate humanity from the chains of personal slavery and to make it a den of piety, freedom of thought, equality and brotherhood and love. But the system of government that Amir Muawiyah established was devoid of all these basic principles, so Yazid's government was based on the concept of personal monarchy and dictatorship, which inevitably resulted in the deprivation of the basic rights of the citizens of the Islamic State. , The state has become a mere spectacle and arena of nonsense and scams. There was a sense of helplessness everywhere. Yazidism has heated up the market of misery, oppression, exploitation, oppression, separatism, murder and bloodshed everywhere. Family feuds, revolts and riots were on the rise as the authorities made Bait-ul-Mal their fiefdom and began to spend their wealth on themselves and their family members without hesitation and the public did not dare to ask about it. ۔ If anyone dared to do so, his head would be severed from his body. It was as if the authorities had imposed slavery on the people. This was the period of the monarchy about which the Holy Prophet (PBUH) had informed the Ummah:
هَلَاکُ اُمَّتِي عَلَى يَدَيْ ُْغْلَيْمَةٍ سُفَهَاءَ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ
“The destruction of my ummah will be at the hands of a few ignorant Quraysh slaves” (Bukhari: 7058)
Not only that, but the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) also determined the time of appearance of these foolish slaves. It is narrated on the authority of Abu Sa'eed Al-Khudri that he heard the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) saying:
يَقُونُ خَلَْفٌ مِنْ بَعْدِ السِّتِينَ سَنَةً اَضَاعُوْا الصَّلوَةَ وَاتَّبَعُوا الشَّهَوَاتِ ، فَسَوْفَ يَلْقَوْنَ غَيًّا
There will be some illegitimate children on the 9th of this year who will waste their prayers and follow their lusts. Therefore, she will soon enter the realm of Hell. ”(Musnad Ahmad: 11649)
And Hazrat Abu Hurayrah used to pray:
Allah, they are not the leaders of Satin, they said: And what is the head of Satin? قَالَ: اِمَارَةُ الصِّبْيَانِ
“Allah! I never reached the age of sixty. People nearby asked: What will happen in the early sixties? He said: “The government of childish idiots” (Al-Mujam Al-Awsat: 1397).
Describing the characteristics of the Sabian government, he said:
وَيْل م لِلْعَرَبِ مِنْ شَرٍّ قَدِ َْقَرتَرَبَ: َِمَارَةُ السِّب ،يَانِ
"Woe to the Arabs for the evil that is near, ie, the rule of childish idiots, if the Arabs obey them, they will throw them into hell, and if they disobey them, they will We will break their necks. ”(Author Ibn Abi Shaybah 🙂
And the narrators and jurists agree that the first of the idiots mentioned in the hadith was Yazid ibn Mu'awiyah who ascended the throne in the year 6 and remained in power until the year 6. (Fath al-Bari: Ibn Hajar Asqalani, 13/10)
In view of the above facts, let the scholars and intellectuals decide for themselves that when Yazid and his associates are torn apart, coercion, Islamophobia, moral decay, corruption of beliefs and deeds and oppression and aggression at the national and collective level. Had the extremity reached its peak and the system of government was completely disorganized in every way, did Imam Hussain have any choice but to take action? When all the people were dead-hearted and even the rest of the Companions fell silent on Yazid's tyranny and injustice, the only effective descendant of the Prophet's family who was the true heir of the Prophet's seat of preaching knowledge and mysticism and was able to do so. If so, would they also kneel before Yazidi oppression and injustice and remain silent? Absolutely not, because in such a storm where the question of protection of religion and sanctity of religion arises, the silence of such a great being would destroy Islam forever, because now was the time to protect and explain religious beliefs, practices and standards of religion. So that the same Islam may be renewed which was brought by your great grandfather Allah. Therefore, he took to the field for the renewal of religion and nation and for the survival and restoration of its principles and values. This was their glory and this was what adorned them, otherwise at a time when the state of religion at every level had become obsolete and pitiable if the liver of the Prophet (peace be upon him) had also succumbed to the same system of government. If they had sworn allegiance to the transgressors and perverted the religion and compromised on the universal principles of Islam, the religion would have been shattered and the religion which was revealed to humanity until the Day of Judgment would have flourished. Would have died in the beginning. Imam Ali (as) was fully aware of this creational reality, which is why he did not submit to dictatorship and monarchy, nor did he endorse the rule of the usurpers of basic human rights, but with the blood of his followers. He painted the Arabian Peninsula in such a way that it carried with it false beliefs, social and economic evils, and Islamic concepts became the permanent focus of people's attention with clarity.
Some so-called thinkers and ignorant scholars say with great irony that Hussein's move was for emirate. We ask these counterfeiters what was the purpose of all the reform revolutions that took place in the world? The British Revolution III, the French Revolution III, the Indian Revolution III, and in this regard the Liberation Movement, the Russian Revolution III, the two great wars, and the Iranian Revolution III, etc., came to an end. The truth is that when the people in power are the source and source of every evil, then reform and renewal requires the Emirate and the government. This is a fact that only an unbalanced mind can deny.
The consequences of Hussein's martyrdom bear witness to our thinking. After this great martyrdom, the basic principles of the Islamic state became clear to the scholars and jurists and what riots and evils are caused by the overthrow of the Islamic system of sanctity and sanctity. This martyrdom also established all these standards of Islam. ۔ That is why the chapters of Emirate and Imamate were built on these political and religious issues according to beliefs and deeds in jurisprudence and theology and all the Imams of Mujtahidin agreed on Yazid's immorality and condemned him. Imam Haitami is of the opinion that: “After the scholars have agreed on the transgression of Yazid, there is a difference of opinion among them about sending a curse on Yazid, especially in his name. Therefore, a group which includes Ibn Al-Jawzi and Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, etc., believe in the legitimacy of cursing Yazid by name. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal said: Can anyone who believes in Allah befriend Yazid? And why not curse the person whom Allah Himself has cursed in His Book? He asked: Where has Allah cursed Yazid in his book? He said: In this instruction of Allah:
Fهl asytm their tfsdua tulytm their impression of you who tqtaua arhamكm22 aulىك lanهm fasmهm and aamى absarهm23 God (Allah Mohammad: 22 – 23)
So it is not far from you that if you get a government, you will spread corruption in the land and cut off your kinship. These are they whom Allah has cursed, deafened them from the truth and blinded their eyes.
So, is any corruption more than murder? ”(Al-Sawa'iq al-Muharraqah: 3/635) Ibn Hammam is rich:
Yazid's disbelief has been disputed. Some have called him a disbeliever because he has narrated things that indicate his disbelief, for example: he considered alcohol lawful. After killing Hussain and his companions, he spread the superstition that: What they did to my Quraysh elders and chiefs in Badr, I have avenged them by killing Hussain and the Ahl al-Bayt. And many more things like that. Perhaps this is the reason why Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal has called Yazid a kaafir because according to him this report about Yazid has been proved to be correct. ”
And the people of insight know the significance of what is said by Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal. That is why all the Shawafis and Hanbalis are convinced to send a curse on Yazid. Ibn al-Jawzi narrates that: “Qazi Abu Ali has written a book in which he has mentioned those who deserve the curse. Among them he has also mentioned Yazid. In justification of this, Abu Ali has narrated this hadith. That is:
Whoever terrorizes the people of Madinah, Allah will put him in fear. And on such a person is the curse of Allah, of all the angels and of the people. "
And there is no dispute that Yazid attacked the people of Madinah and terrorized them. (Al-Sawa'iq Al-Muharraqa: 1/3)
Here the jurist Shafi'i Al-Harasi has said a very interesting thing:
As far as how the Salaf-e-Saliheen are convinced to curse Yazid is concerned, in this regard, two sayings have been narrated from each of Abu Hanifa, Malik and Ahmad ibn Hanbal: Tasreeh and Talwih. But we (Shafi'is) have only one opinion and that is the description (cursing with open explanation) and why not? Yazid used to hunt leopards; He used to play drums and was addicted to alcohol. ”(Hayat-ul-Haywan: 2/3)
Confirming this, Sahib Nibras is rich:
Some scholars have applied the common curse to Yazid. One of them is Ibn Al-Jawzi who has written a book on the justification of cursing Yazid. Similarly, there is Ahmad ibn Hanbal who has justified the curse on Yazid from the Qur'an. What is the argument and it is Abu Ali who has argued from the hadith and all this is correct because he invaded Madinah until he killed the people of Madinah and oppressed them severely. And when Yazid ordered the assassination of Hussein, he became a kaafir, because the scholars agree that whoever killed Hussein, or ordered the assassination, or allowed his assassination, or was happy with it. He deserves to be cursed. ”(Al-Nibras: 1/5)
The truth is that when an issue becomes a definite subject of jurisprudence and the interpretation of hadith, it goes beyond the realm of history and enters into beliefs. Therefore, the opinion of some people that the martyrdom of Hussain is only a historical event is only a partial statement because Denial of historical fact is possible, but denial of jurisprudential and theological and commentary and hadithic truth is misguidance. Since all the narrators and commentators and jurists and theologians have made the martyrdom of Hussain and the issue of Yazid the subject of jurisprudence and theology, it is a religious fact which has been decided only in the light of Qur'an and Sunnah. And this decision of the scholars of truth is a suggestion and admiration of Hussain in every mirror and this is the real truth at every level. Muhammad Ali Johar had said in view of this fact:
Islam comes alive after every Karbala